Step 4: Analyze the Data
Interview results (transcribed data) are analyzed through the process of coding, categorizing and interpretation. “To Codify is to arrange things in a systematic order, to make something part of a system or classification, to categorize….Coding is thus a method that enables you to organize and group similarly coded data into categories or “families" because they share some characteristic – the beginning of a pattern.” (Saldana, 2013, p. 9). There are many approaches to coding qualitative data. Coding categories may come directly from the data, from the literature or from a pre-set coding scheme.
The actual codes attached to the meaning segments can be of several types: In vivo or literal (actual words used by the participant), descriptive (a descriptive word or phrase that captures the meaning), or interpretive (an interpretive or abstract concept that captures the meaning.)
Coding can be done inductively by going to the data and finding the units of words, also called meaning units, and attaching codes. Coding can also be done deductively by have a pre-set of codes from the literature, theory, etc. and you go to the data to find "instances" of these codes.