Module 4: Focus Groups
A focus group is a planned and interactive discussion designed to collect perceptions, beliefs, opinions and attitudes about a defined topic of interest. This approach provides a qualitative alternative to survey research. Focus groups usually consist of six to ten people, led by a trained moderator. The supposition is that perceptions and attitudes are developed, in part, by interaction with other people. For research studies, 3 to 5 focus groups usually are conducted.
- This link provides a concise description of conducting a focus group. Grudens-Schuck, N., Allen, B. L., & Larson, K. 2004. Focus group fundamentals. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Extension.
- This document is part of a series of tip sheets developed by the Program Development & Evaluation Unit ,University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension. Program Development and Evaluation, Focus Group Interviews, Quick Tips #5, University of Wisconsin-Extension, Madison, WI.
- DBarnett J. Focus Group Tips for Beginners. Texas Center for the Advancement of Literacy and Learning.
- Rennekamp R, Nall M. Using Focus Groups in Program Development and Evaluation. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension.
- University of Wisconsin Institute for Clinical and Translational Research.
- University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Guidelines for Conducting Focus Groups.
Babbie, E. 2013. The Practice of Social Research, Thirteenth Edition.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Cresswell, J.W., & Plano Clark, V.L. 2010. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research – 2nd Edition.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Knodel, J. 1993. Design and analysis of focus group studies. Sage.
- Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. 2009. Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research – 4th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Morgan, D.L. 1997. Focus groups as Qualitative Research. Sage.
- Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M.W., & Freeman, H. 2004. Evaluation : A Systematic Approach - 7th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Russ-Eft, D., & Preskill, H. 2009. Evaluation in Organizations: A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Performance and Change.New York: Basic Books.
- Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Sinagub, J. 1996. Focus group interviews in education and psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
- Wheatly, K.L., & Flexner, W.A. 1988. Dimensions that make focus groups work. Marketing News, 22(10): 16-17.